ecology

How long does it take pinyon and juniper seed to develop and how long does it persist in the soil?

In pinyon pines (Pinus monophylla and P. edulis), portions of three growing seasons are required to produce mature seeds. Pinyon seeds are short-lived with little inherent dormancy.  In Utah (Juniperus osteosperma) and western junipers (J. occidentals), it takes two growing seasons following pollination to produce mature fruits. In contrast to pinyon, juniper often have long-lived seeds…